Basic Functions of Memory

Basic Functions of Memory

The memory has a three-stage function, encoding, storing and calling. The first stage is the coding step.

The information to be learned at this stage is coded in a different way than the other information. The function of storing information follows the encoding. This is called retention. The third stage of coded and stored information is recall and recall.

The memory has a three-stage function, encoding, storing and calling.

This three-stage function indicates the presence of a mechanism in memory; Some information from short-term memory is transferred to long-term memory and stored there. For information to be remembered, it must be encoded and stored in memory. However, this is not enough. Searching for the information stored in the memory should be subconscious. For example, we sometimes remember the answer to a question asked in the exam after we give our paper. This indicates that the call function has been disrupted (Selman, S; 83).

Let’s consider a student trying to learn the alphabet in the first grade of elementary school. The teacher writes the letter “A” on the blackboard and tells how to read the letter. After a while, the teacher writes the letter on the blackboard and asks Ali to read it. Ali tells the letter “A” correctly. It was possible for Ali to say A , thanks to his memory. There are three stages in this case.

The first phase is the coding phase. When Ali showed the teacher letter, he coded his memory so that it could be different from the other letters. After the coding, Ali has stored the information he encoded in a while. This stage is called the stroge stage. When the teacher asked the novel, Ali found the information he had stored and brought it back. This phase is called the retrieval stage (Atkinson, S; 170).

One morning, you meet a student and you say that his name is Ali Gursel. You saw him again that afternoon that same day  you’re Ali Gürsel. We met this morning . You obviously remember his name. However, how exactly did you do that?

These three skills of your memory can be divided into three stages. First of all, when you meet Ali Gürsel’s name in some way you store your memory. This is the coding phase. You have transformed the physical phenomenon (sound waves) corresponding to Ali Gürsel’s name to the code types that the memory will accept, and you put it in your memory. Second, you kept this name in mind between these two encounters. This is the storage phase. And third, you remember the name you stored the second time. This is the recall phase.

Memory may fail in any of these three phases.

Memory may fail in any of these three phases. In the second encounter, you could not remember the name of Ali, which could have been caused by a failure in the coding, storage or recall phases. Recent research on memory aims to determine the processes that occur in each phase in different situations, how these processes are disrupted and memory failures. (Cüceloğlu, S; 307-308)


The meaning of a particular sign in a particular sign system to be a) mental patient) is a sign statement and can be interpreted in various ways (ie can be coded) In psychiatry this person mostly needs treatment, patients, etc. in the form of. On the other hand, the same person is often interpreted as ”close to god or; devil into his soul” in the language of religion (Budak, S; 327).

All external stimuli are not detectable. after passing through a specific selection filter, however, a certain part is detected. After the selected stimuli are detected, it switches to short-term memory. This means that many of the stimuli and events in the external environment cannot reach short-term memory.

It is not possible to remember events and events that have not entered into memory. Most people complain about their memory, mostly because their complaints are not due to their memory, but because of their selective sensing processes. In other words, there is a disruption to what they pay attention to and what they do not pay attention to. The problem is in the encoding phase. For example, ask a friend who has gone to the grocery store about half an hour before the grocery shoe’s shoes and cannot give you the right answer, because looking at the color of the shoe of the grocery store and keeping him in mind is not an issue he cares about (Atkinson, S; 173-174).

We need to direct our attention to coding the information into short-term memory. Since we are selective about what to focus our attention on, short-term memory will include only those selected. This means that most of the things we encounter have never entered short-term memory and, of course, it is not possible to remember later. In fact, most of the difficulties called memory problems are actually disruptions in attention concentration. For example, if someone asks you for the seller’s eye color after shopping in a grocery store, you probably won’t be able to respond

When attention is concentrated on an information, this information is encoded into short-term memory. As mentioned earlier, coding also means that information is not only kept in memory, but is also stored in a particular format or as a password. (Cüceloğlu, S: 309)


Storage, storage, warehouse. In cognitive psychology, a term often used synonymously with memory. (Budak, p. 204)

Short-term memory has a small capacity. On average, this capacity is seven units. Some people begin to make mistakes in their short-term memory after five units and some after nine. You may be amazed that the capacity of short-term memory is 7 + 2, because we have observed that people’s memories show different abilities in our daily lives. In everyday life, the difference in ability in memory that we have observed among individuals comes from long-term memory. The capacity of short-term memory can be expressed by the formula 7 + 2 above. One of the first to make this observation is the German psychologist Ebbinghaus, famous for his work on memory. (1855) The American psychologist George Miller once again saw the number 7 in his own work and stated the capacity of short-term memory under the name magic figure 7 (. (Atkinson,

Perhaps the most surprising fact about short-term memory is its fairly limited capacity. On average this limit is 7 items, but this number can vary from two items. (7 + 2) while some people can keep five items, they can keep nine items. While it is obvious that individuals are quite different from each other in terms of memory abilities, it may seem odd to give an exact number covering all people. These differences, however, are mainly related to long-term memory. For short-term memory, most of the normal adults have a capacity of 7 + 2. This consistency has been known since the early days of experimental psychology. (Cüceloğlu, S: 310-311)

There are findings that recall calls for short-term memory, where one item is examined at a time.


Suppose the contents of short-term memory may be conscious. Common sense, buy information will be achieved immediately tells. We do not need to think about this information. He stands there. Recall should then not depend on the number of substances in consciousness. However, this time common sense is misleading.

There are findings that recall calls for short-term memory, where one item is examined at a time. This index search takes place at a very rapid rate – as fast as we can actually not notice. Most of the findings of this kind of search come from Stenberk (1966). In each attempt of the experiment, a series of numbers, called memory lists, that must be kept in the short-term memory selectively, is shown. When each memory list contains fewer than 7 numbers, the experiment is easy to keep in short-term memory. Then, the memory list is eliminated. And after a few seconds the number of tests is given. The subject must decide whether the number of tests is in the list. For example, if the memory list is 3,6,1, and the test number is 6, the subject should answer YES; when the test number is given as 2 with the same memory list, the subject should give the  no 2 response. Since the memory list has been removed when the test number is given, the number of tests must be mixed with the list encoded in the short-term memory. (Cüceloğlu, p. 315)

Since we are constantly aware of the information in short-term memory, we think as if it was possible to find and remove information without promptly asking us. In order to find the answer to the question asked in a short-term memory about everyday life, we get the impression that it is not like time passes. For example, if the above list of names was given to you, if they asked if there was Necla in the list, you might think that the time between asking the question and your answer to yes or no is not going away. This impression is incorrect.

12 Differences Between Girls and Boys

12 Differences Between Girls and Boys

Girls and boys are different from each other in every way. Well, what are the main features that attract attention?

1- As a result of the development of the right side of the male’s brains in the mother’s right side and the left side of the brains as the primary development of the girls, boys play a more active role in academic skills, language and social development in the more successful girls in physical activity-requiring activities.

2- Newborn baby boys are more cumulative and longer than girls. While this feature caused them to sit late, it was observed that the girls sat early and walked 2 months ahead of the boys. Boys are becoming more easily ill and these characteristics are life-long.

3- Girls’ first words can start to speak longer and more regularly as compared to boys. In 4-5 years, vocabulary is higher than that of boys. This superiority in language development leads girls to be more likely to read and socialize, to think more quickly to adapt to their surroundings, and therefore to make mistakes easily.

4- One of the characteristics that attract attention in the pre-school period is that boys and girls prefer to play with their own kind and do not have much interaction with the other sex.

5- Boys choose to play animated games based on physical power, run them to reflect their energy out, even though they do not call them naughty, and it is enough for girls to sing and paint when they need to be in tiresome activities.

6- Although boys are not as tolerant of rejection as girls in the response to rejection, gaining toilet habits and eating habits is developing later than girls who are more tolerant of their mothers and more protective of their mothers.

7- Girls are more successful than boys in writing activities such as hand-eye co-ordination and the use of small muscles. Girls prefer to build eye contact as they speak faster and express their fears better and are better listeners than boys.

8- Development of empathine in children is faster than we thought. Boys prefer to use empathy in situations where they can give social support while boys prefer to be in help with physical strength.

9- As far as primary education, girls and boys have a lot of differences in their clothing, and in terms of their color preference, girls prefer pink and tones to their gender differences.

10- During adolescence, there are some psychological and physiological changes in girls and boys. Girls start their fast boys before boys. As a result, girls aged 11-14 years are generally longer and heavier than men of their age. In men, the rapid height extension starts later and ends later. The girls’ physical development is ending at the latest at the age of 20; the physical development of men can last up to the age of 23-25. The girls are embarrassed from the sight of menstruation and breasts, try to hide by wearing plenty of clothes, and men see the emergence of beard and mustache as a masculine symbol and count it as a superiority.

11 – According to the levels of sexual maturity, it is observed that girls who developed more than 2 years later than boys, late maturing boys needed more social acceptance and showed more aggression.

12- In emotional, social, and cognitive aspects of development, girls develop earlier than men, the distance between them gradually increases and continues until puberty. The difference is 6 months in average 6 months and up to 2 years in adolescence. After puberty, this difference gradually decreases.

What are the Stories doing to the Child’s Brain?

How much is the child’s brainaffected by the stories? About a year ago, the American Academy of Pediatrics explained that child care should include introducing children literacy from birth.

This means: Pediatricians should advise and encourage parents about how important it is to read even the youngest children. Dr. This statement we have received with Pamela C. High also includes extensive research into the relationship between books and voice-language growth and future language development and school success.

However, even if we know that the consequences of reading a book to a small child will be good, we have only limited knowledge of what this mechanism might be. Two new studies examine the unexpected complex interactions that happen when you put a small child in your lap and open the cover of a picture book.

Stories affect the child’s brain

In a study published this month in the Pediatrists’ Magazine, brain activities were examined using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging where children aged 3 to 5 years were asked to listen to appropriate stories . Researchers reveal differences between brain activations that vary according to how many books the children read at home .

Children with more books at home and parents who read more books showed significantly more activation in the area of ​​the left cerebral hemispheres (parietal-temporal-occipital cortex association). “This region of the brain is a very important region for multi-sensory integration that integrates voice and visual stimulation,” writes the author. John S. Hutton.

This region of the brain is known to be very active when older children read books to themselves, but Dr. Hutton adds that even when small children read a book, the same region is acted upon. What is most interesting is that in children who are exposed to more books and homeschooling, there is a marked increase in activity in areas of the brain that perform visual correlation. And even when the child is only listening to a story in the brain scan device and does not see any pictures.



Children who meet art in preschool period is intelligent

Children who meet art in preschool period is intelligent

With the multi-faceted art education given in pre-school years, the children who are supported by their development and creativity are also changing their outlooks on the outside world. Most of the art activities are; It helps the child to develop original thinking, to increase self-confidence, to be more productive, to try to change the environment in a positive way, to be aware of it, to think versatily, to improve problem-solving skills.

Mental Health is Important as Body Health!

Children should be in contact with visual and auditory arts from the moment they are born for a healthy development process. The importance of art education is increasing day by day in terms of the fact that the health of the body is best followed, and the children who have made intensive efforts to develop their mental and motor skills are individuals with a healthy mental structure.

Communication Gets Strengthen!

The most important goal of early childhood education is the education of imagination. Therefore, the first six years of art education is indispensable for the individual. Kindergarten should be the place where children can express their feelings and thoughts in an environment and materials. Children who meet with art events and visual items in pre-school period perceive visual symbols that they will meet for life faster and more accurately. Thus, at every stage of their lives, they express their emotions and thoughts better with text, painting, music or other visual arts.